July / August  2006




August/September Contents 

Sufis - wisdom against

 Sufi poet saints

 50 years of mountain

 Interviews with:
 Ajaz Anwar
Iqbal Hussain
Kamil Mumtaz

 Heritage cities:
 Taxila Dharmrajika
 Bhera - Part I
Bhera - Part II


Cotton - the fibre of

Cotton textiles of
 South Asia

 Handlooms & Dyes

 Hiran Minar


 Lahore Gymkhana

 B2B - Part I

B2B - Part II

Optical Networks I
Optical Networks II

Role of Internet in
 S Asian development

Technology and
 investment in US
 stock markets

Security & Trust in
 Internet banking

 Telecom & software
 - trends & future in
 South Asia

China & India - major
 players by 2025

Pakistan - IT Markets
Part I
Part II
Part III
Part IV









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JU-Stupa-layers.jpg (34909 bytes)

TAXILA - 2002



Salman Minhas


First published in October 2002



Brief History & Background


6th century B.C.

Birth of Buddha 563 B.C. Achaemenid or Persian Empire , under King Darius, and later Xerxes .[518 B.C] included Sindh and East Punjab. The language was Aramic and these inscriptions of mid –third century B.C. were found in Sirkup near Taxila.

5th Century B.C.

Buddha dies in 483 B.C.

3rd Century B.C.

Alexander the great came to Punjab in 326 B.C. At this time Raja Ambi [ Orphis ] was king of Taxila and was at war with the Paurava king Porus whose kingdom was beyond the Jhelum river . Raja Ambi allied himself with Alexander and joined hands with Ora in Swat [ the Udaygram ruins ] and Puskalavati [ today Charsadda near Peshawar]

After Alexander’s death in 323 B.C. Gandhara came under the Mauryan Emperors of India .


2nd Century B.C.

By 262 B.C. the Mauryan ruler Ashoka the Great, after committing horrific carnage in war, converted to Buddhism. Buddhist Art appears in Taxila and remains up to 800 A.D.

Ashoka founded the Dharma Dharmarajika Stupa near Taxila and the Chinese pilgrim Huein Tsang mentions about 1000 monasteries in Gandhara alone.

Around 250B.C. Greeks under Menander appear in the Gandhara area.

100 B.C.

Central Asian People and tribes called the Scythians and the Parthians in 103 B.C. in Persia and Gandhara ruled the areas at Takhti Bahi [ near Mardan city today .Kushanas were the main dynasty and their king Kanishka printed coins with Buddha’s image.

AD 100 

Vasudeva was the last Kanishka ruler. The Chinese pilgrim Huein Tsang mentions Purushpura (Peshawar) , and the Ashoka Stupa in Taxila . About 100 images of Buddha were found at Taxila / Gandhara area. In addition Pari- Nirvana stories of the Buddha’s after-death were engraved in stone in Taxila and the coffin, and disposal of his ashes are also recorded.

A.D. 300-500

The White Huns, a tribe from Central Asian invade and trample Taxila . Sung Yun a Chinese pilgrim mentions Taxila in AD 520 .

A.D. 700

Petty nobles fight for power. The area of Taxila and Gandhara is still Buddhist and priests still follow the " Greater Vehicle" of Buddha’s teachings

AD 1100 – 1200 

Ghazni kings invade this area. Conversion to Islam begins. Defacing of many sculptures. Invasions into Delhi, India. Babur, the first Mughal also enters the area with his armies





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