Tibetan Medicine

- H.H. The Dalai Lama
 on Tibetan medicine

- What is Tibetan 

- History & Background

- Basis of Tibetan Medicine

- Tibetan medicine - How
  and Why it works

- Future of Tibetan


Maha Kumbh
- The story

- Kumbh 2001

- The best of Kumbh photos

- Optical Networks - Areas
  of development

- B2B - Efficiency & Profits

- Delhi the resilient city 

- Shamshad Hussain

- 2000 The Year of
  South Asian Women

- Ritu Kumar - Designing
  for 'Queens'

-'The Moonlight Garden'
  Mystery unfolded at Taj

-'Silk Road on Wheels'


'India - Through The Lens'

Editor's Note


South Asian Shop

Old Prints




the-south-asian.com                         December  2000

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Delhi Under the Mughals

1701 - 1800

1707 - 1712 - Bahadur Shah I (Aurangzeb's eldest son) - military campaigns exhausted the treasury. Nobility turned against him.

1712 - 1713 - Jahandar Shah - lost interest in the administration of his empire.

1713 - 1719 - Farrukhsiyar - disintegration of the empire during his time.

1719 - 1748 - Muhammad Shah - rise of regional opposition groups. During his time Nadir Shah invaded India.

jantarmantar.jpg (24163 bytes)1724 - Jantar Mantar -An astronomical observatory designed by the astronomer - King Sawai Jai Singh II of Jaipur, was constructed in Delhi. It was  built with masonary instruments to observe  the movements of the stars and the planets.

nadir_shah.jpg (11110 bytes)1739 – Nadir Shah’s invasion of Delhi. 150,000 Delhi residents massacred in a single day. Defeated the Mughal army in Karnal and proceeded towards Delhi. Took with him the fabulous Peacock throne made for Shahjahan.

1748 - 1754 - Ahmad Shah Bahadur

1753-1754 Safdarjang's tomb built soon after his death. 

1754 - 1759 - Alamgir II

1756-57 - Afghan ruler Ahmad Shah raided Delhi in winter of 1756-57

1760-1806 - Emperor Shah Alam reigned Delhi from1760-1806. Brave, cultured, intelligent, spoke 4 languages, harem of 500 women, sightless – eyes gauged out by Ghulam Qadir in 1788, an Afghan marauder.

Sports and court amusements – partridge and elephant fights

People of note in Delhi 1701 - 1800

Shah Wali Ullah 1703 – 1762 – lived in Delhi. Sufi of Naqshbandi order. Aim to check the spiritual and political decline of Islam in India. "Translated the Quran into Persian, wrote Quranic commentaries and works on theology and jurisprudence. Attempted to show that Sufism was in accord with Islam. No influence in his own time but became important source of Islamic social and political thought in 19th and 20th centuries in India and Pakistan."

Khwaja Mir Dard 1720 – 1785 son of a Naqshbandi teacher of Delhi. Became an ascetic and recognised as a spiritual leader of both Naqshbandi and Chishti orders. Wrote both poetry and prose in Persian but remembered best as "pillar" of Urdu poetry

Poets of  Delhi  1701 - 1800

Abru [1692-1747] one of the earliest poets who wrote under the influence of Vali. 

Sauda, Mir, Mir Dard and Jan Mazhar[1700-1781] the Four Pillars of Urdu poetry according  to critics. Mazhar the first poet in Urdu – historical importance .

Mirza Mohammad Rafi Sauda b 1713-1780. Raised Urdu to the status of a literary language

Mohammad Taqi Mir 1722- 1810 – born Akbarabad and died in Lucknow. Came to Delhi. Poetry on Delhi after sacking of Delhi by Nadir Shah – realism in poetry

Khwaja Mir Dard b 1719- 1785 born in Delhi – introduced concept of mushaira – assembled poets of Delhi including Sauda, Mir, and Soz. After the mushaira,  held discussions on language.

Mir Dard’s younger brother Mir Asar also a poet of repute but not so well known.

Other poets of the time

Shah Abdul Latif 1689-1752 born in Hyderabad, Sind joined a group of wandering yogis and settled in Bhit where his tomb is a revered shrine. His verses in Sindhi sung to Indian melodies remain very popular.

Bulleh Shah 1680- 1752 – one of the most admired Punjabi sufi poets. Also wrote in Persian prose and was drawn to the philosophy of the Vedanta. 


Waris Shah 1730-1790 wrote in Punjabi using language and metaphors of earthly love.


Literature and texts  1701 -1800

 Muraqqa e Dehli – account of Delhi by Dargah Quli Khan from Deccan who visited Delhi from 1737-1741 [ Safdarjang’s time] as part of entourage of Safdarjang’s great rival Asaf Jah the first Nizam of Hyderabad. Gossipy book about dancers and courtesans. Most famous courtesan was Nur Bai.

Accounts of English in Delhi – Lt William Franklin ‘Asiatic Researches’ published in Calcutta in 1795.

Delhi 1801- 1858

1803 - Occupation of Delhi by Lord Lake. Imperial power became non-existent. The Emperor Shah Alam and his 2 successors were referred to as King of Delhi

1806 - 1837 - Akbar II

1837 - 1858 - Bahadur Shah Zafar came to the throne in 1837 when he was little over 60. The last of the Mughal emperors – author of 4 divans.

1857 – Uprising for national liberation. Massacres and hangings. Recapture of Delhi by the British on 14 Sept 1857 led to massive destruction of the city. Red Fort plundered and razed – became British barracks. Jama Masjid saved on time – would have been replaced by a cathedral. 3000 Delhites tried and executed. Inhabitants of Delhi were all turned out of the gates to starve in the countryside. British atrocities. Bahadur Shah II arrested.

1858 – the last emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar sent off to Rangoon in exile on bullock cart. The princes, his children were all shot. 

Poets of the time

Shaikh Mohammad Ibrahim Zauq b 1789 – 1854 -one of the leading poets of Delhi in his time. Loved Delhi. Emperor’s perceptor.

Momin – 1800-1851

ghalib.jpg (13679 bytes)Mirza Asadullah Khan Ghalib – poetry and letters –b 27 Dec 1797 in Agra. Died 13 Feb 1869 in Delhi.  Considered Zauq a rival. Emperor’s perceptor after Zauq's death.

Medieval Urdu poetry came to an end with Zauq, Momin and Ghalib.


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