Tibetan Medicine

- H.H. The Dalai Lama
 on Tibetan medicine

- What is Tibetan 

- History & Background

- Basis of Tibetan Medicine

- Tibetan medicine - How
  and Why it works

- Future of Tibetan


Maha Kumbh
- The story

- Kumbh 2001

- The best of Kumbh photos

- Optical Networks - Areas
  of development

- B2B - Efficiency & Profits

- Delhi the resilient city 

- Shamshad Hussain

- 2000 The Year of
  South Asian Women

- Ritu Kumar - Designing
  for 'Queens'

-'The Moonlight Garden'
  Mystery unfolded at Taj

-'Silk Road on Wheels'


'India - Through The Lens'

Editor's Note


South Asian Shop

Old Prints





the-south-asian.com                         December  2000

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Delhi Under the Mughals

1526 - 1600

1526 April - .Battle of Panipat. Babar defeated and conquered Ibrahim Lodhi at the battle of Panipat, near Delhi. Sent his son Humayun to Agra to secure the treasure, himself marched to Delhi and proclaimed himself the Padshah of Hindustan.


humayun.gif (15985 bytes)1533 - Following advice of astrologers, Humayun, the second Mughal chose the ancient site of Indraprastha, associated with the Mahabharata, to build his new capital Din Panah 'Asylum of Faith' in Delhi. All that’s left is what is now called Purana Qila.

1539 - Humayun defeated by Sher Shah Sur - fled Delhi to Persia.

1540-45 Sher Shah ruled and  settled in Delhi, expanded Din Panah.

1545 - 1555 - Various successors to Sher Shah - weak rulers.

1555 July - Humayun [2nd reign July 1555- Jan 1556] again entered Delhi after conquering Lahore.

1556 January - Humayun passed away. Six months after his return, he was observing Venus from his library, when he heard the call to prayer. Wishing to kneel down, his feet caught in the folds of his garment, and Humayun fell to the bottom of his library staircase and died.

1556 - Many claimants to the throne after Humayun's death. Three Afghan rivals  (descendants of Sher Shah) and Hemu. Akbar and his General Bairam Khan were focusing on Sikandar, the most dangerous of the three Afghan claimants, and had placed Mughal Governor Tardi Beg Khan to defend Delhi. In October 1556 Hemu, chief minister to one of the three Afghan rival princes, decided to set up on his own and marched with a large force towards Delhi and defeated Tardi Beg Khan's forces. Hemu proclaimed himself an independent ruler with the title of Raja Vikramaditya. A month later, Mughal forces under Akbar met Hemu's forces in Panipat and won. Delhi became theirs.

humayun_tomb.jpg (10504 bytes)1564 - Humayun’s  senior wife Haji Begum started building Humayun's tomb. It was designed by a Persian architect – Mirak Mirza Ghiyas – who built the first dome in India in the Persian tradition. Completed in 1573.


1601 - 1700

1639 - Shahjahan began construction of Shahjahanabad in Delhi. Built the Red Fort.

1644 - Ordered construction of Jama Masjid

red_fort_-_lahore_gate.jpg (9357 bytes)1648 – Shahjahan, 47, moved court from Agra to Shahjahanabad. Delhi (what is now called Old Delhi). His daughter Jahanara built the Chandni Chowk – the talk of the town, at its time, for its beautiful layouts

1648 - The city of Shahjahanabad completed.

jummamas.jpg (72434 bytes)1656 – Jama Masjid inaugurated by an Imam from Bukhara – hence the Bukhari Imams of Jama Masjid, Delhi

Delhi was the richest and the most magnificent city between Istanbul and Edo. It had 2 million inhabitants – larger than London or Paris.

Shahjahan namah compiled by court historian Inayat Khan. 

Artists - Govardhan, Bichitar, Abul Hasan.

1657 - Shahjahan became very ill.

1658 – Francois Bernier, a French physician came to Delhi and became physician to the Imperial family and Mughal nobility. Wrote ‘Travels in the Mogul Empire’.

1658 - Aurangzeb, Shahjahan’s 3rd son, defeated and captured his oldest brother Dara Shukoh. Seized the throne by killing all his brothers and imprisoning his father. Crowned in Shalimar Gardens, 5 miles north of Delhi.

1659 - Dara was marched humiliatingly, together with his 15 year old son Sipihr Shukoh, along Chandni Chowk. Bernier, the French physician witnessed it. Dara beheaded later on. Buried in Humayun tomb complex. Sipihr was imprisoned for 14 years.

Dara Shukoh 1615 – 1659, Eldest and favourite son of Shahjahan [great grandson of Akbar] was very popular with people of Delhi.  Refined sensibilities. An intellectual. Keen student of Hindu mystical philosophy. Educated in the Sufi tradition. Interested in other religions. Sought a bridge between Islam and Hinduism. Convinced that the link was to be found in the philosophy of the Upanishads, which he called "the most perfect of the divine revelations" In 1633 married Nadira Begum, a distant cousin. Studied Hindu philosophy and mystical practices. Translated, with the help of a pundit, 52 Upanishads into Persian, completed in 1657. A French version was later made of Dara’s text, and Upanishads introduced to the west. Also had Gita and Yoga Vashishta translated into Persian. Wrote ‘Majmua ul Bahrain’ [the mingling of the two oceans] a comparative study of Hinduism and Islam, emphasizing the compatibility of the two faiths and the common source of their divine revelation. Follower of Qadri order of Sufis. Accused of heresy. On 29 May 1658 near Agra, Aurangzeb defeated Dara’s army. Dara captured and  beheaded.


Safdarjang arrived from Persia during Aurangzeb’s time 

1707 - Aurangzeb dies

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